All Top News -- ScienceDaily Top science stories featured on ScienceDaily's home page. en-us Tue, 08 Dec 2020 22:30:02 EST Tue, 08 Dec 2020 22:30:02 EST 60 All Top News -- ScienceDaily For more science news, visit ScienceDaily. Crystals may help reveal hidden Kilauea Volcano behavior Researchers used millimeter-sized crystals from the 1959 eruption of Hawaii's Kilauea Volcano to test models that offer insights about flow conditions prior to and during an eruption. Fri, 04 Dec 2020 15:54:22 EST Researchers uncover key clues about the solar system's history Researchers have used magnetism to determine, for the first time, when asteroids that are rich in water and amino acids first arrived in the inner solar system. Fri, 04 Dec 2020 13:13:22 EST What social distancing does to a fish brain Researchers have discovered a brain molecule that functions as a 'thermometer' for the presence of others in an animal's environment. Zebrafish 'feel' the presence of others via mechanosensation and water movements -- which turns the brain hormone on. Wed, 02 Dec 2020 19:27:19 EST A hint of new physics in polarized radiation from the early universe Astronomers developed a new method to calibrate detectors to the light from dust in our Galaxy, thereby describing a new physics, with 99.2 percent accuracy, that may show parity symmetry breaking. Wed, 02 Dec 2020 11:45:15 EST Researchers determine how the SARS-CoV-2 virus hijacks and rapidly causes damage to human lung cells Researchers have identified host proteins and pathways in lung cells whose levels change upon infection by the SARS-CoV-2, providing insights into disease pathology and new therapeutic targets to block COVID-19. Wed, 02 Dec 2020 11:45:02 EST Greenland ice sheet faces irreversible melting Scientists predict Greenland ice sheet will pass a threshold beyond which it will never fully regrow and sea levels will be permanently higher in as little as 600 years under current climate change projections, as Greenland's climate would be permanently altered as the ice sheet shrinks. Wed, 02 Dec 2020 11:44:48 EST New tests identify early changes in Alzheimer’s disease before symptoms appear Researchers have found new forms of tau protein that become abnormal in the very early stages of Alzheimer's disease before cognitive problems develop. The scientists developed new tools to detect these subtle changes and confirmed their results in human samples. Tue, 01 Dec 2020 20:39:37 EST Is it better to give than receive? Young children who have experienced compassionate love and empathy from their mothers may be more willing to turn thoughts into action by being generous to others, a University of California, Davis, study suggests. Lab studies were done of children at ages 4 and 6. Tue, 01 Dec 2020 10:36:26 EST Fingerprints' moisture-regulating mechanism strengthens human touch Human fingerprints have a self-regulating moisture mechanism that not only helps us to avoid dropping our smartphone, but could help scientists to develop better prosthetic limbs, robotic equipment and virtual reality environments, a new study reveals. Mon, 30 Nov 2020 15:04:05 EST New Hubble data explains missing dark matter The missing dark matter in certain galaxies can be explained by the effects of tidal disruption: the gravity forces of a neighboring massive galaxy, literally tearing the smaller galaxy apart. Mon, 30 Nov 2020 11:35:27 EST Which factors trigger leaf die-off in autumn? Researchers have identified a self-regulating mechanism in European deciduous trees that limits their growing-season length: Trees that photosynthesize more in spring and summer lose their leaves earlier in autumn. Mon, 30 Nov 2020 10:13:09 EST Not just lizards: Alligators can regrow their tails too, new study reveals Scientists have discovered that young alligators have the ability to regrow their tails up to three-quarters of a foot -- about 18 percent of their total body length. The researchers speculate that this ability to regrow tails gives the alligators a functional advantage in their murky aquatic habitats. Mon, 23 Nov 2020 10:09:52 EST Zebra finches amazing at unmasking the bird behind the song Like humans who can instantly tell which friend or relative is calling by the timbre of the person's voice, zebra finches have a near-human capacity for language mapping. Sat, 21 Nov 2020 10:43:09 EST Researchers examine which approaches are most effective at reducing COVID-19 spread Researchers have found that physical distancing is universally effective at reducing the spread of COVID-19, while social bubbles and masks are more situation-dependent. The researchers developed a model to test the effectiveness of measures such as physical distancing, masks or social bubbles when used in various settings. Fri, 20 Nov 2020 15:07:26 EST Memories create 'fingerprints' that reveal how the brain is organized While the broad architecture and organization of the human brain is universal, new research shows how the differences between how people reimagine common scenarios can be observed in brain activity and quantified. These unique neurological signatures could ultimately be used to understand, study, and even improve treatment of disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Fri, 20 Nov 2020 13:26:24 EST A biochemical random number Scientists have generated a huge true random number using DNA synthesis. It is the first time that a number of this magnitude has been created by biochemical means. Fri, 20 Nov 2020 11:38:54 EST Field geology at Mars' equator points to ancient megaflood Floods of unimaginable magnitude once washed through Gale Crater on Mars' equator around 4 billion years ago -- a finding that hints at the possibility that life may have existed there, according to data collected by NASA's Curiosity rover. Fri, 20 Nov 2020 11:38:42 EST Two distinctly different liquid states of water Using X-ray lasers, researchers have been able to follow the transformation between two distinct different liquid states of water. At around minus 63 Celsius, the two liquids exist at different pressure regimes with a density difference of 20 percent. By rapidly varying the pressure before the sample could freeze, it was possible to observe one liquid changing into the other in real time. Thu, 19 Nov 2020 14:17:56 EST From the inside out: How the brain forms sensory memories A new study identifies a region of the thalamus as a key source of signals encoding past experiences in the neocortex. Mon, 16 Nov 2020 09:22:46 EST Healthy sleep habits help lower risk of heart failure Healthy sleep habits are associated with a lower risk of heart failure. Adults with the healthiest sleep patterns (morning risers, sleeping 7-8 hours a day and no frequent insomnia, snoring or excessive daytime sleepiness) experienced a 42% reduction in the risk of heart failure compared to those with unhealthy sleep patterns. Mon, 16 Nov 2020 07:57:28 EST NASA's SpaceX Crew-1 astronauts headed to International Space Station An international crew of astronauts is en route to the International Space Station following a successful launch on the first NASA-certified commercial human spacecraft system in history. NASA's SpaceX Crew-1 mission lifted off at 7:27 p.m. EST Sunday from Launch Complex 39A at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Mon, 16 Nov 2020 00:52:27 EST Tree rings may hold clues to impacts of distant supernovas on Earth Massive explosions of energy happening thousands of light-years from Earth may have left traces in our planet's biology and geology, according to new research. Wed, 11 Nov 2020 14:44:00 EST Climate change causes landfalling hurricanes to stay stronger for longer Climate change is causing hurricanes that make landfall to take more time to weaken, reports a new study. Researchers showed that hurricanes that develop over warmer oceans carry more moisture and therefore stay stronger for longer after hitting land. This means that in the future, as the world continues to warm, hurricanes are more likely to reach communities farther inland and be more destructive. Wed, 11 Nov 2020 12:28:26 EST Research identifies 'volume control' in the brain that supports learning and memory A 'molecular volume knob' regulating electrical signals in the brain helps with learning and memory, according to a new study. The finding could help researchers in their search for ways to manage neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. Tue, 10 Nov 2020 15:12:04 EST Large, delayed outbreaks of endemic diseases possible following COVID-19 controls Measures such as mask wearing and social distancing that are key to reducing coronavirus infection have also greatly reduced the incidence of other diseases, such as influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). But researchers report that current reductions in these common respiratory infections, however, may increase people's susceptibility to these diseases, resulting in large future outbreaks when they begin circulating again. Mon, 09 Nov 2020 18:49:06 EST Water may be naturally occurring on all rocky planets Life is deeply dependent on water, but where does water come from? Based on new research, researchers believe it may emerge in connection with the formation of planets. Mon, 09 Nov 2020 11:02:28 EST Calories by the clock? Squeezing most of your calories in early doesn't impact weight loss Time-restricted eating, which restricts eating to specific hours of the day, did not impact weight among overweight adults with prediabetes or diabetes. Adults in the 12-week study ate the same healthy, pre-prepared foods, however, one group ate the bulk of their calories before 1 p.m. each day, versus the other group that ate 50% of their calories after 5 p.m. Mon, 09 Nov 2020 07:41:19 EST Rivers melt Arctic ice, warming air and ocean A new study shows that increased heat from Arctic rivers is melting sea ice in the Arctic Ocean and warming the atmosphere. Sat, 07 Nov 2020 13:39:22 EST Baby dinosaurs were 'little adults' Paleontologists have described for the first time an almost complete skeleton of a juvenile Plateosaurus and discovered that it looked very similar to its parents even at a young age. That could have important implications for how the young animals lived and moved around. The young Plateosaurus, nicknamed 'Fabian', was discovered in 2015 at the Frick fossil site in Switzerland. Fri, 06 Nov 2020 12:33:13 EST About half of Sun-like stars could host rocky, potentially habitable planets According to new research using data from NASA's retired planet-hunting mission, the Kepler space telescope, about half the stars similar in temperature to our Sun could have a rocky planet capable of supporting liquid water on its surface. Fri, 06 Nov 2020 08:27:46 EST Poor nutrition in school years may have created 20 cm height gap across nations A new global analysis has assessed the height and weight of school-aged children and adolescents across the world. The study revealed that school-aged children's height and weight, which are indicators of their health and quality of their diet, vary enormously. Thu, 05 Nov 2020 18:38:40 EST Early big-game hunters of the Americas were female, researchers suggest For centuries, historians and scientists mostly agreed that when early human groups sought food, men hunted and women gathered. Not so, say researchers. Thu, 05 Nov 2020 08:37:24 EST Touch and taste? It's all in the tentacles Scientists identified a novel family of sensors in the first layer of cells inside the suction cups that have adapted to react and detect molecules that don't dissolve well in water. The research suggests these sensors, called chemotactile receptors, use these molecules to help the animal figure out what it's touching and whether that object is prey. Thu, 29 Oct 2020 14:20:25 EDT Positive outlook predicts less memory decline A new study finds that people who feel enthusiastic and cheerful -- what psychologists call 'positive affect' -- are less likely to experience memory decline as they age. This result adds to a growing body of research on positive affect's role in healthy aging. Thu, 29 Oct 2020 13:55:01 EDT Where were Jupiter and Saturn born? New work reveals the likely original locations of Saturn and Jupiter. These findings refine our understanding of the forces that determined our Solar System's unusual architecture, including the ejection of an additional planet between Saturn and Uranus, ensuring that only small, rocky planets, like Earth, formed inward of Jupiter. Thu, 29 Oct 2020 11:58:02 EDT A drop in temperature In the nearly two centuries since 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (37.0 degrees Celsius) was established as the standard 'normal' body temperature, it has been used as the measure by which fevers have been assessed. Over time, however, lower body temperatures have been widely reported in healthy adults -- for example, in recent studies in the UK and the US. Researchers have now found a similar decrease among the Tsimane, an indigenous population of forager-horticulturists in the Bolivian Amazon. Wed, 28 Oct 2020 17:14:32 EDT For vampire bats, social distancing while sick comes naturally New research shows that when vampire bats feel sick, they socially distance themselves from groupmates in their roost -- no public health guidance required. Tue, 27 Oct 2020 10:54:07 EDT NASA's SOFIA discovers water on sunlit surface of Moon NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has confirmed, for the first time, water on the sunlit surface of the Moon. This discovery indicates that water may be distributed across the lunar surface, and not limited to cold, shadowed places. Mon, 26 Oct 2020 12:59:02 EDT NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft collects significant amount of asteroid Two days after touching down on asteroid Bennu, NASA's OSIRIS-REx mission team received on Thursday, Oct. 22, images that confirm the spacecraft has collected more than enough material to meet one of its main mission requirements -- acquiring at least 2 ounces (60 grams) of the asteroid's surface material. Fri, 23 Oct 2020 21:44:59 EDT Humans are born with brains 'prewired' to see words Humans are born with a part of the brain that is prewired to be receptive to seeing words and letters, setting the stage at birth for people to learn how to read, a new study suggests. Analyzing brain scans of newborns, researchers found that this part of the brain -- called the 'visual word form area' (VWFA) -- is connected to the language network of the brain. Thu, 22 Oct 2020 12:55:25 EDT ALMA shows volcanic impact on Io's atmosphere New radio images from ALMA show for the first time the direct effect of volcanic activity on the atmosphere of Jupiter's moon Io. Wed, 21 Oct 2020 16:39:38 EDT Smile, wave: Some exoplanets may be able to see us, too Three decades after astronomer Carl Sagan suggested that Voyager 1 snap Earth's picture from billions of miles away -- resulting in the iconic Pale Blue Dot photograph - two astronomers now offer another unique cosmic perspective: Some exoplanets -- planets from beyond our own solar system - have a direct line of sight to observe Earth's biological qualities from far, far away. Wed, 21 Oct 2020 14:09:31 EDT Turbulent era sparked leap in human behavior, adaptability 320,000 years ago The first analysis of a sedimentary drill core representing 1 million years of environmental history in the East African Rift Valley shows that at the same time early humans were abandoning old tools in favor of more sophisticated technology and broadening their trade, their landscape was experiencing frequent fluctuations in vegetation and water supply that made resources less reliably available. The findings suggest that instability in their landscape was a key driver of human adaptability. Wed, 21 Oct 2020 14:09:19 EDT NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft successfully touches asteroid NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft unfurled its robotic arm Tuesday, and in a first for the agency, briefly touched an asteroid to collect dust and pebbles from the surface for delivery to Earth in 2023. Tue, 20 Oct 2020 18:41:34 EDT Hot-button words trigger conservatives and liberals differently Researchers have linked a brain region to what they call neural polarization, offering a glimpse into the partisan brain in the weeks leading up to what is arguably the most consequential U.S. presidential election in modern history. Tue, 20 Oct 2020 15:05:09 EDT Octopus-inspired sucker transfers thin, delicate tissue grafts and biosensors Thin tissue grafts and flexible electronics have a host of applications for wound healing, regenerative medicine and biosensing. A new device inspired by an octopus's sucker rapidly transfers delicate tissue or electronic sheets to the patient, overcoming a key barrier to clinical application. Fri, 16 Oct 2020 16:43:12 EDT Ground-breaking discovery finally proves rain really can move mountains A pioneering technique which captures precisely how mountains bend to the will of raindrops has helped solve a long-standing scientific enigma. Fri, 16 Oct 2020 14:30:49 EDT Pinpointing the 'silent' mutations that gave the coronavirus an evolutionary edge Researchers have identified a number of 'silent' mutations in the roughly 30,000 letters of the COVID-19 virus's genetic code that helped it thrive once it made the leap from bats and other wildlife to humans -- and possibly helped set the stage for the global pandemic. Fri, 16 Oct 2020 12:24:03 EDT Magnetic fields on the moon are the remnant of an ancient core dynamo A long discussed theory about the local magnetic spots of the moon suggests that they are the result of magnetization processes caused by impacts of massive bodies on the moon surface. A new study now shows that the Moon must have had an internal core dynamo in the past. Thu, 15 Oct 2020 17:31:33 EDT Reviving cells after a heart attack Researchers have unraveled potential mechanisms behind the healing power of extracellular vesicles and demonstrated their capacity to not only revive cells after a heart attack but keep cells functioning while deprived of oxygen during a heart attack. The researchers demonstrated this functionality in human tissue using a heart-on-a-chip with embedded sensors that continuously tracked the contractions of the tissue. Wed, 14 Oct 2020 17:13:22 EDT A billion tiny pendulums could detect the universe's missing mass Researchers have proposed a novel method for finding dark matter, the cosmos' mystery material that has eluded detection for decades. Wed, 14 Oct 2020 16:05:10 EDT Biggest carbon dioxide drop: Real-time data show COVID-19's massive impact on global emissions While the ongoing coronavirus pandemic continues to threaten millions of lives around the world, the first half of 2020 saw an unprecedented decline in carbon dioxide emissions -- larger than during the financial crisis of 2008, the oil crisis of the 1979, or even World War II. Wed, 14 Oct 2020 08:28:06 EDT ESO telescopes record last moments of star devoured by a black hole Astronomers have spotted a rare blast of light from a star being ripped apart by a supermassive black hole. The phenomenon, known as a tidal disruption event, is the closest such flare recorded to date at just over 215 million light-years from Earth, and has been studied in unprecedented detail. Mon, 12 Oct 2020 11:59:56 EDT Genomic study reveals evolutionary secrets of banyan tree The banyan fig tree Ficus microcarpa is famous for its aerial roots, which sprout from branches and eventually reach the soil. The tree also has a unique relationship with a wasp that has coevolved with it and is the only insect that can pollinate it. In a new study, researchers identify regions in the banyan fig's genome that promote the development of its unusual aerial roots and enhance its ability to signal its wasp pollinator. Thu, 08 Oct 2020 12:12:48 EDT Nitrous oxide emissions pose an increasing climate threat, study finds Rising nitrous oxide emissions are jeopardizing the climate goals of the Paris Agreement, according to a major new study. The growing use of nitrogen fertilizers in the production of food worldwide is increasing atmospheric concentrations of nitrous oxide -- a greenhouse gas 300 times more potent than carbon dioxide that remains in the atmosphere for more than 100 years. Wed, 07 Oct 2020 12:31:31 EDT New key player in long-term memory A research team has discovered that during memory consolidation, there are at least two distinct processes taking place in two different brain networks -- the excitatory and inhibitory networks. The excitatory neurons are involved in creating a memory trace, and the inhibitory neurons block out background noise and allow long-term learning to take place. Wed, 07 Oct 2020 12:31:21 EDT New research explores how super flares affect planets' habitability New research will help astrobiologists understand how much radiation planets experience during super flares and whether life could exist on worlds beyond our solar system. Wed, 07 Oct 2020 12:30:37 EDT Why some friends make you feel more supported than others It's good to have friends and family to back you up when you need it -- but it's even better if your supporters are close with each other too, a new set of studies suggests. Researchers found that people perceived they had more support from a group of friends or family who all knew and liked each other than from an identical number of close relationships who were not linked. Wed, 07 Oct 2020 08:56:09 EDT Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2020: CRISPR/Cas9 method for genome editing This year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry is being awarded to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna for the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 method for genome editing. Wed, 07 Oct 2020 08:34:43 EDT Remote control of blood sugar: Electromagnetic fields treat diabetes in animal models Researchers may have discovered a safe new way to manage blood sugar non-invasively. Exposing diabetic mice to a combination of static electric and magnetic fields for a few hours per day normalizes blood sugar and insulin resistance. The unexpected and surprising discovery raises the possibility of using electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as a remote control to manage type 2 diabetes. Tue, 06 Oct 2020 15:35:07 EDT